What if I pay too much tax?
This page looks at what to do if you have paid too much tax on your employment income or want to claim a refund for employment expenses.
How do I claim back tax I have overpaid through PAYE on wages?
If you receive employment income and pay tax through the Pay As You Earn (PAYE) system you may sometimes pay too much tax, for example, as a result of being on emergency tax or because you stop work part way through the tax year.
In such cases, HMRC’s automatic reconciliation system should aggregate your pay and tax details after the end of the tax year and HMRC may issue you with a tax repayment automatically. You should also receive a P800 tax calculation. It is important that you check the calculation and that the repayment is correct, as set out in the tax basics section.
But what if you do not want to wait for a P800 calculation, or you don’t receive a P800 calculation?
There is more information on what to do if you think you have overpaid tax through PAYE in the current tax year, in the tax basics section.
See also the questions below, How will I get my emergency tax back?, How do I claim a refund if I have stopped working part way through the tax year? and How do I claim a refund if I leave the UK part way through the tax year?.
If you think you have paid too much tax through your employment and the end of the tax year in which you overpaid tax has already passed, you can make a claim for a refund by contacting HMRC. There is more information on how to do this, including example letters, in the tax basics section.
As explained on our How do I check my coding notice? page, if you cannot produce a form P45 when you start a new job, your employer will ask you for new starter information. This enables your employer to pay you without a proper tax code in place, however it can mean that you overpay tax. As soon as your proper tax code is confirmed, and provided the tax year has not ended, the payroll should make the relevant adjustments to repay any overpaid ‘emergency’ tax in-year.
Emily starts a new job in September 2019. She lives in Wales, has not got a form P45, but has been working earlier in the year. She completes the new starter information checklist, and her new employer uses 1250L M1 as an emergency code.
So, each month under 1250L M1, Emily is allocated one-twelfth of her personal allowance.
She starts off in September with £1,042 of allowances (£12,500 divided by 12). She earns £2,000, so her tax liability is £191.60 (£958 at 20%).
October and November
In October and November, she gets another £1,042 of allowances in each month. Again she earns £2,000 each month, so her tax liability is £191.60 each month.
In December, Emily does not work as she is on holiday. HMRC confirm to Emily’s new employer, that in her first job she earned £4,500 and paid £500 tax and that her normal tax code is 1250L.
As the M1 restriction has now been removed, Emily’s pay and tax details can be worked out on a cumulative basis. Her employer adds together all her pay to date in 2020/21 (£4,500 plus £6,000), which totals £10,500. The employer works out how much tax free pay Emily should have had by this point in the tax year (£1,042 x 9 = £9,378). Emily’s tax liability to date is therefore £1,122 x 20% = £224.40. Emily has paid tax of £500 plus £191.60 x 3 = £1,074.80. Emily will get a refund of £850.40 through the payroll in December.
January, February, March
As the wrinkle has been ironed out, going forwards, Emily will have £1,042 to set against her monthly income of £2,000, resulting again in tax liabilities of £191.60 each month.
At the end of the tax year, Emily’s total income will be £16,500. Her total tax paid will be around £800. If we set Emily’s personal allowance (£12,500) against the £16,500 and apply the 20% basic rate of tax to the balance, we can see that Emily paid the correct amount of tax.
If this payroll adjustment does not happen before the end of the tax year, then HMRC’s ‘P800’ reconciliation system should aggregate your pay and tax details after the end of the tax year and HMRC should issue you with any tax repayment automatically.
How do I claim a refund if I have spent my own money on employment expenses?
First things first, you should make sure that your expenses qualify for tax relief. You can find out more about expenses that you can claim for on our website.
Even if you meet the rules, you need to make sure you have paid enough tax to get tax relief. In 2020/21, you will pay tax on your earnings over £12,500 (your personal allowance – for more information on allowances, see: What tax allowances am I entitled to?).
Josie earns £12,650 in 2020/21. After the personal allowance is deducted, she will have taxable income of £150, which at 20% means that she will pay £30 tax. She has qualifying expenses of £100 which she has paid for from her salary. By putting in a tax claim for this, she will not get the £100 back from HMRC, but will get the tax back that she has paid on the £100. As she has paid tax at 20%, this will be £20. Even though she will also have paid 12% National Insurance on the £100, there is no National Insurance relief available.
If Josie’s expenses were £200, her tax claim would be restricted to £150 and her refund restricted to £30.
To get tax relief, you have to make a claim to HMRC, but it is not difficult to do so. If you do not usually have to complete a tax return, a claim can be made on form P87. There are two versions available from GOV.UK:
- A P87 you can complete and submit online through the Government Gateway
- A P87 that you complete on screen but still have to print it off and post it to HMRC. So you need to have your printer and paper on standby!
You cannot save a copy of the form and come back to it partly completed. Make sure you have all information to hand before you start, including:
The tax year your claim refers to.
Your personal details including address, date of birth, and National Insurance number.
Your employer’s details including name, type of business, address and employer reference number (you will find this on your payslip or P60). If you changed jobs during the year, you might need details for all relevant employments. If you do not have the ‘employer industry’ or your ‘employee number’ you should insert ‘unknown’ otherwise you will not be able to progress.
Details of the expenses you wish to claim, for example the number of business miles you have travelled.
Repayment instructions – that is, the bank account which you want it paid directly into (with bank name, address, account name, sort code, account number) or the address you want a cheque to be sent to (you can also have it paid to a nominee).
If you need further help understanding and completing the form, you can find more information and also an annotated example of form P87 in the Forms section of our website.
If you would prefer a paper version of form P87 to complete by hand, then you will have to ring HMRC’s helpline and request that one is sent out to you.
There are plenty of organisations which offer to make the claim for you, but they will take a fee from any repayment you get.
Where the amount of employment expenses exceeds £2,500, then the tax refund claim must be made through the completion of a more formal Self Assessment tax return.
You would receive a tax refund cheque for any past tax years, and would get your tax code adjusted for the current and future years – the relief will be given automatically in your pay packets so you will not need to claim again (although you should make sure you check your PAYE coding notice carefully to ensure that the relief has been ‘coded in’ properly).
If you have stopped work part way through the tax year and know that you are not going to have a continuing source of taxable income (including taxable income), you should be able to claim an in-year tax repayment using form P50.
You should not need to send in your P45, however if the details on your form P50 do not match HMRC payroll records, then you may be asked to send it in – so keep it somewhere safe.
You may also be able to use form P50 to claim a refund where you become unemployed and know that you definitely will not be working again for at least four weeks.
(If you start work again after that, some adjustments may be needed over the rest of the tax year to take into account the fact that you have already had an in-year refund. If you start a new job within four weeks of finishing your old one, make sure you give your new employer form P45 (the form that is given to you by your employer when you leave employment with them), they should pay any refund you are entitled to with your pay from your new job (a bit like what happens in an emergency tax scenario once a proper tax code is issued)).
Once you have sent in a P50, if you are entitled to a repayment of income tax, HMRC will send it to you – this may be by cheque in the post, or direct to your bank account if you so request.
If you are entitled to a repayment of income tax, HMRC will send it to you – this may be by cheque in the post, or direct to your bank account if you so request.
You can also nominate someone else to receive the refund and it can be paid by post or directly into their bank or building society account.
You cannot use form P50 if you are claiming, or intending to claim a state benefit such as Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) or contributory/new style Employment and Support Allowance. This is because some of these benefits are taxable and so will affect the amount of any refund that you can claim.
Instead, if you start to claim JSA, for example, you need to let Jobcentre Plus have your form P45 from your paid work. They will then put the details onto their system. If you have overpaid tax under PAYE, you will not get this refunded until the earlier of:
- ceasing to claim JSA – in which case your refund comes from Jobcentre Plus;
- the end of the tax year – in which case your refund should come from HMRC.
If you are not a Self Assessment taxpayer, and are leaving the UK to live abroad permanently or are going to work abroad full-time for at least one full tax year, you might be able to claim a refund by completing form P85 ‘Leaving the UK – getting your tax right’ to HMRC. You can find the form on GOV.UK.
If you are leaving the UK temporarily, then see the guidance in our What if I work abroad temporarily? section.
The time limits for claiming back overpaid tax are set out in the tax basics section.
There is information on what to do if you miss the normal time limits for making a claim for repayment of tax in the tax basics section.
There is information on GOV.UK on:
Those who are due a refund because of employment expenses, may find our news article What to do if you incur expenses in relation to your job useful.
For guidance on your refund position if you stop work because you are made redundant, see our guidance in the employment section.
If you want information on tax refunds in other situations, go to the tax basics section.