Skip to main content

From 6 January 2024, the main rate of class 1 National Insurance contributions (NIC) deducted from employees’ wages is reduced from 12% to 10%. From 6 April 2024, the main rate of self-employed class 4 NIC will reduce from 9% to 8% and class 2 NIC will no longer be due. Those with profits below £6,725 a year can continue to pay class 2 NIC to keep their entitlement to certain state benefits. Our guidance will be updated in full in spring 2024.

Updated on 6 April 2023

Capital gains tax

Capital gains tax (CGT) is a complicated subject, so we provide an introduction only. We do cover the main issues, though, and signpost you to where you may find extra help.

Content on this page:

Overview

CGT is a tax charged if you sell, give away, exchange or otherwise dispose of an asset and make a profit or 'gain'.

It is not the amount of money you receive for the asset but the gain you make that is taxed.

Broadly, to calculate the gain, you compare the sale proceeds (or value of the asset at the time it was disposed of) with the original cost of the asset (or value when it was acquired). This is illustrated below:

A stack of coins illustrates how a capital gain is calculated. The whole stack of coins represents the asset’s proceeds or its value on disposal. You take off some of the coins (the cost or the value when the asset was acquired) to find the gain.
Canva.com

You can find a basic guide to CGT on GOV.UK.

When it applies

As noted above, CGT applies when you sell, give away, exchange or otherwise dispose of a capital asset. A capital asset is something that you own such as a house, shares in companies or other possessions.

Some assets are specifically exempt from CGT. We discuss exempt assets below.

If you are a UK resident, you may be liable to CGT on disposals of assets located anywhere in the world, not just your UK-located assets.

Non-residents are liable to CGT if they are carrying on a trade in the UK. If you are non-resident (including in the overseas part of a split year), you may also be liable to CGT on the disposal of UK land and property (although private residence relief may apply).

There are special rules for CGT purposes that apply to individuals who are normally resident in the UK but are temporarily resident outside the UK (broadly this means those who are non-resident in the UK for less than five years). We look at these on our page Non-residents and capital gains tax.

You may have to pay CGT when you give an asset as a gift to someone.

The rules are different depending on who you give the gift to and there are special reliefs for gifts of business assets. We do not cover the relief for gifts of business assets here, but you can find information on GOV.UK.

CGT can also apply if you transfer assets on separation, divorce or dissolution of a civil partnership.

In some cases, you are treated as if you have disposed of an asset. This might happen, for example, if a personal possession, such as an antique, has been destroyed and you have received a capital sum, such as an insurance pay-out, by way of compensation.

Inherited assets

You do not pay CGT when you inherit an asset, but you may have to pay CGT if you sell, give away or exchange an asset you inherited and it has increased in value since the date of death.

If the asset you inherited increases in value between the date of the deceased's death and the date you dispose of it, the increase is a capital gain.

Exempt assets

As already mentioned, some assets are specifically exempt from CGT. Some of the most common examples are:

  • private motor cars, including vintage cars,
  • gifts to UK registered charities,
  • some government securities,
  • prizes and betting winnings,
  • cash,
  • stocks and shares held in an ISA, and
  • foreign currency held for your own use.

The disposal of your main home is often free of CGT, but this is not always the case. The CGT relief that can be applied on disposal of your main home does not apply to second homes or properties which are rented out, though part of those gains might qualify for relief if the property has previously been your only or main residence. You can read more about the relief on our page Selling your home.

If you sell or give away personal belongings (‘chattels’) then there will be no CGT if your share of the proceeds or value when given away is less than £6,000. See Selling shares and other assets for more information. Please note however, that company shares are not usually exempt from CGT.

Calculating gains

You normally work out your gain by taking the proceeds (or in some cases, the market value on the date of disposal) and then deducting all of the following:

  • original cost (or in some cases, market value when acquired),
  • incidental costs of purchase,
  • costs incurred in improving the asset, and
  • incidental costs of sale

This then gives you the chargeable gain. 

Example: Neil

Neil bought a holiday house in March 1979 for £10,000. Neil already had another home of his own. By 31 March 1982 the value of the holiday house had increased to £25,000.

In July 2023, Neil sold the holiday house for £250,000. He had legal costs of £1,000 on the purchase of the house and £7,000 legal and estate agent costs on the sale. Neil had improved the house by building an extension costing £15,000 in May 2001.

Neil’s gain is calculated as follows:

  £ £
Proceeds

 

250,000

Less:

 

 

31 March 1982 value

25,000

 

Cost of extension

15,000

 

Legal expenses on purchase

1,000

 

Legal expenses on sale

7,000

 

Total deductions

 

- 48,000

Chargeable gain

 

202,000

If the extension had been carried out prior to 31 March 1982, then the cost of it would be ignored as it would be reflected in the 31 March 1982 value.

Proceeds and costs

In terms of proceeds, if you give away an asset HMRC will treat you as having sold it for what it is worth (that is, the market value).

In terms of costs, if you bought the asset, you would normally use the actual amount paid for the asset as your ‘original cost’. However, if you are selling an asset you owned at 31 March 1982, you use the market value as it was on 31 March 1982 – the amount you could have sold it for on the open market at that date – instead of your original cost.

If the asset was received as a gift, you will usually need to consider the market value of the asset when you acquired it (unless, for example, you acquired it from your spouse or civil partner – in which case, you would usually use their purchase cost or value when they acquired it – see our information on our page Capital gains tax on gifts).

When you improve or add to your asset, you can deduct this cost in the calculation (this will reduce the gain). You can only include improvements, for example, an extension to a house, and not repairs.

Similarly, you can deduct the incidental costs of buying and selling in the calculation. Typical costs include legal expenses and estate agents' fees for property, and broker's commission on the purchase and sale of shares.

We discuss these elements further under Capital gains tax reporting and Capital gains tax record-keeping.

Part disposals

Where you dispose of only part of an asset (other than shares – see our separate guidance), you work out your cost by taking your sale proceeds and dividing them by the total of sale proceeds and the market value of the unsold part. This is then multiplied by your overall cost like this:

Cost of the part disposed of = A x B/C, where

A = overall cost

B = sale proceeds

C = sale proceeds added to the market value of the unsold part

Example: Razvan

Razvan owns a house which he rents out. The house cost him £160,000. A neighbour offers to buy part of the garden for £15,000. The value of the house with the smaller garden is £155,000.

When calculating the gain on selling part of the garden, Razvan’s calculation of the cost he can use is as follows:

Cost of the part disposed of = £160,000 [overall cost] x £15,000 [sale proceeds] divided by (£15,000 [sale proceeds] + £155,000 [value of the house with the smaller garden])

So, the cost of the part disposed of is £160,000 x £15,000 / £170,000 = £14,117

Small part disposals of land

If you sell part of a holding of land for £20,000 or less and the proceeds are not more than 20% (1/5th) of the value of the whole piece of land, you can elect not to have made a disposal; but the amount of proceeds you receive is taken off your cost which is used to calculate any future disposal.

You cannot make the election if you have other disposals of land in the same year and the total of proceeds for all disposals is more than £20,000.

See HMRC’s capital gains manual CG71870 for more information.

Example: Jenny

Jenny sells 1 acre of land for £5,000 which is part of a 5-acre field. The other 4 acres are worth £35,000 at the time she makes the disposal, as they are more likely to have development value in future than the acre just sold.

Jenny paid £10,000 for the whole 5 acres, 15 years ago.

In working out her capital gain on disposal of the 1 acre, she will deduct a cost figure calculated as A x B/C where:

A = £10,000 (entire cost)

B = £5,000 (sale proceeds)

C = £5,000 (sale proceeds) + £35,000 (value of part retained) = £40,000

£10,000 x £5,000/£40,000 = £1,250.

So, without taking anything else into account, Jenny's gain on the 1-acre sale will be her proceeds of £5,000, less a cost of £1,250 = £3,750.

Alternatively, provided Jenny had not made total proceeds on sales of land and property of more than £20,000 in the tax year, she could decide to simply deduct the sales proceeds of £5,000 from the cost price, leaving her with a base cost of £5,000 to be used against any future disposals. This is using the relief for small part disposals of land.

However, if Jenny had made no other capital gains in the same tax year, she would not want to use the small part disposals of land rules, as the £3,750 gain would fall within her annual capital gains exempt amount. This would mean she would keep a higher base cost to set against any future disposal of the remaining 4 acres, possibly minimising a future CGT liability.

The annual exempt amount

Each tax year, most individuals who are resident in the UK are allowed to make a certain amount of capital gains before they have to pay CGT. This is because they are entitled to an annual tax-free allowance, called the annual exempt amount (AEA). It is also sometimes referred to as the annual exemption.

In 2022/23, the AEA was £12,300. For 2023/24, it is reduced to £6,000. From 2024/25, we expect it to be reduced further to £3,000, though at the time of writing this is not yet confirmed.

Any unused AEA cannot be carried forward or back. Each spouse or civil partner gets their own AEA.

Individuals who are resident in the UK, but not domiciled here, and who use the remittance basis of taxation (other than in the case where the remittance basis applies automatically because unremitted foreign income and gains are less than £2,000) are not entitled to an AEA.

Individuals who are non-resident who may be liable to CGT on the disposal of UK land and property are entitled to an AEA.

Rates of CGT

The rate of CGT you pay depends partly on what type of chargeable asset you have disposed of and partly on the tax band into which the gain falls when it is added to your taxable income.

CGT is charged at the rate of either 10% or 18% for basic rate taxpayers. For higher or additional rate taxpayers, the rate is either 20% or 28%. If you are normally a basic-rate taxpayer but when you add the gain to your taxable income you are pushed into the higher-rate band, then you will pay some CGT at both rates.

Gains on most chargeable assets are subject to the 10% or 20% rate, depending on whether the taxpayer is a basic rate or higher/additional rate taxpayer. Chargeable gains on disposals of residential property that do not qualify for, or are not fully covered by, private residence relief are subject to the 18% or 28% rate.

There is a special rate of 10% that applies on the sale of certain business assets. This is called business asset disposal relief (before 6 April 2020, it was called entrepreneurs' relief). You can find more information on GOV.UK.

If you live in Scotland and are a Scottish taxpayer, or if you live in Wales and you are a Welsh taxpayer, the same rules as explained above apply to you. You must use the UK rates and bands to work out your CGT, even if you pay income tax at the Scottish or Welsh rates and bands on your salary, self-employed profits, rental income or pension.

Working out your CGT

As noted above, there are two main sets of rates of CGT, 10%/18% and 20%/28%. The rate you pay depends upon your taxable income and the type of asset disposed of.

If you are taxed at no more than the basic rate of tax on your taxable income, you pay CGT at 10% (or 18% if the asset disposed of is a residential property) on any capital gains falling within the remaining basic rate band.

If you have income taxable at the higher rate of 40% and/or the additional rate of 45% your capital gains are taxed at 20% (or 28% if the asset disposed of is a residential property).

So, if your total taxable income and gains after all allowable deductions – including losses, personal allowances and the CGT annual exempt amount – are less than the upper limit of the basic rate income tax band (£37,700 for 2023/24), the rate of CGT is 10% or 18%. For gains (and any parts of gains) above that limit the rate is 20% or 28%.

Example: Hasan

In 2023/24 Hasan’s taxable income, after all allowable deductions and the personal allowance, is £24,500. Hasan is not a Scottish taxpayer.

The upper limit of the income tax basic rate band is £37,700.

In November 2023, Hasan sells an asset, making a gain of £26,200. Hasan has no allowable losses to set against these gains, and the annual exempt amount for 2023/24 is £6,000.

There is £13,200 left in Hasan’s basic rate band (£37,700 - £24,500).

Hasan sets the annual exempt amount against the gain, leaving £20,200 taxable (£26,200 - £6,000).

The first £13,200 of the £13,900 is taxed at 10% and the remaining £7,000 is taxed at 20%. If the asset Hasan sold is a residential property (for example, a property he has never lived in but has rented out), the rates of tax he pays are 18% on the first £13,200 and 28% on the remaining £7,000 of the gain.

Welsh and Scottish taxpayers

If you live in Scotland and are a Scottish taxpayer, or in Wales and are a Welsh taxpayer, the same rules as explained above apply to you. You must consider your total income and gains in relation to the UK rates and bands to work out your CGT, even if you pay income tax at the Scottish or Welsh rates and bands on your salary, self-employed profits, rental income or pension.

Example: Benny

Benny’s taxable income for 2023/24, after all allowable deductions and the personal allowance, is the same as Hasan’s in the example above: £24,500.

The higher rate threshold in Scotland for 2023/24 is £31,092. Benny pays Scottish income tax at the starter rate of 19% on £2,162 of his taxable income, at the basic rate of 20% on £10,956 of his taxable income, and at the intermediate rate of 21% on £11,382 of his taxable income.

In November 2023, Benny sells an asset, making a gain of £26,200. Benny has no allowable losses to set against these gains, and the annual exempt amount for 2023/24 is £6,000.

When looking at his gain of £26,200, Benny must use the UK rates and bands. So, Benny’s taxable income is £13,200 less than the upper limit of the UK basic rate band (£37,700 - £24,500).

Benny sets the annual exempt amount against the gain leaving £20,200 taxable (£26,200 - £6,000).

The first £13,200 of the £20,200 gain is taxed at 10% and the remaining £7,000 is taxed at 20%. If the asset Benny sold is a residential property (for example, a property he has never lived in but has rented out), the rates of tax he pays are 18% on the first £13,200 and 28% on the remaining £7,000 of the gain.

His CGT liability as a Scottish taxpayer is therefore no different than if he were paying tax in any other part of the UK (such as in the example of Hasan, above), even though his income tax liability is different (being calculated at the Scottish income tax rates).

Jointly owned assets

Each of you is usually liable to tax on your half of any gain arising, assuming the asset is owned equally. If it is not, you are each assessed to tax based on your share of the asset.

Date of disposal

The date of disposal for CGT is the date that you enter into an unconditional contract.

This means that for property, this is the date that contracts are exchanged and not the date of completion when possession of the property is actually taken.

However, note that there is a 60-day window for reporting any capital gains tax due on disposals of UK residential property (or, if you are non-resident, for reporting all disposals of UK land or property). This begins from the date of completion.

For shares, it is the date the bargain actually took place and not the date of the contract note or the date of settlement.

If, instead, you enter a conditional contract, the relevant date is the date when the conditions are satisfied. Let’s say, for example, someone agreed to buy a house that you own on the condition that the broken-down central heating boiler is replaced. The terms of that work might be set out in an agreed contract. The disposal date for the house for CGT purposes would be when the work was agreed to have been completed to the terms of the contract, not the date the contract was agreed.

Delayed or deferred sale proceeds

When you sell an asset, sometimes you receive only part of the money at the date of sale. You may receive further amounts later and some may be dependent on future events. This is called deferred consideration.

Depending on the type of deferred consideration involved, you may need to take it into account immediately when working out your gain or loss for the disposal even though you do not receive it until sometime later.

Generally, if you know the amount of money that you will be receiving, even if it is not payable until a later time, then you include it when calculating the gain or loss.

For example, if the deferred amount consists of an immediate payment followed by a number of instalments, the figure of total proceeds is known in the year of disposal and should be included in your CGT computation even though the actual money will not be received until later.

We are not going to look here at the situation where the amount of the deferred payment is not known as this is more complicated and may require a valuation of the deferred amounts.

Where the disposal proceeds for an asset are payable to you by instalments, you may, in certain circumstances, ask HMRC if you can pay any CGT due by instalments (in recognition that you may not have the money to pay the CGT otherwise).

This relief is available where the instalments, as set out in the contract for sale of the asset:

  • begin no earlier than the date of disposal of the asset; and
  • extend over a period exceeding 18 months; and
  • continue beyond the date on which the tax would otherwise be due and payable.

HMRC guidance states that such an application must be made in writing to them. See their capital gains manual CG14910 and self assessment manual SAM80072.

Further information

You can find a collection of information on CGT on GOV.UK.

For HMRC’s detailed and technical CGT information see the CGT manual.

You may need professional advice when disposing of assets, as CGT can be complicated. Other taxes, such as stamp duty, stamp duty land tax (and similar taxes in the devolved parts of the UK) might also apply on the transfer of property. Giving assets away can also have inheritance tax consequences. Our Getting help pages give guidance on finding a tax adviser.

Back to top