National Insurance for migrants
National Insurance contributions in the UK are paid by employees and employers on earnings and count towards certain state benefits. The self-employed contribute by a fixed weekly amount and a percentage of net profits above a certain threshold. Individuals may also make voluntary contributions in order to fill a gap in their contributions record and thus protect their entitlement to certain benefits.
The UK left the European Union (EU) on 31 January 2020 and entered a transitional period, currently due to end on 31 December 2020, during which EU law continues to apply in the UK. The UK’s relationship with the EU beyond the end of the transitional period has not yet been finalised. Please note that the guidance below reflects the law as it applied before the UK’s departure from the EU, and as it will continue to apply throughout the transitional period.
This section has information on National Insurance specifically for migrants. It contains further information on the following topics:
- How do I get a National Insurance number? – this explains the process for obtaining a National Insurance number (NINO) if you are a migrant;
- What are National Insurance contributions? – we provide a summary of National Insurance contributions (NIC) and the different types;
- What if I am a posted worker from the EU, Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein or Switzerland? – this section explains the position for migrants assigned to the UK by their employers from these countries;
- What if I come from a non-EEA country with which the UK has a social security agreement? – this section explains the position for migrants assigned to the UK by their employers from these countries;
- What if I come from a country with no social security agreement with the UK? – we explain the position for migrants from these countries;
- What if I am a multi-state worker? – we explain the position if you regularly work in more than one country;
- How does the UK state pension work for migrants? – we look at the effect of paying social security contributions in more than one country on your UK state pension.
For a simpler overview, you may want to read our National Insurance factsheet:
Where do I find more information on National Insurance in general?
If you want more detailed information on general National Insurance topics, you can visit the following pages:
- What is National Insurance?
- What National Insurance do I pay as an employee?
- What National Insurance do I pay if I am self-employed?
- What National Insurance do I pay after retirement?